Advanced guide to printing PVA Support Filament

Author: Matt Tyson/Thursday, 12 March 2020/Categories: User Guides, Material Guides, Support Material

Advanced guide to printing PVA Support Filament
Authors Note

Thankyou for taking the time to read our guide on 3D printing PVA. This article has been written to provide both printing and troubleshooting tips along with tips for dissolving and removing supports. We have highlighted important topics with a star (*) so please don't feel intimidated as sections in this guide may not be relevant to everyone, - Matt Tyson, 3D Printing Solutions

This user guide was last updated - 12th March 2020

PVA is a water-soluble filament commonly used to 3D print dissolvable support structures. Dissolvable supports are best suited to print models with improved underside quality or complex geometries with support structures that would be difficult to remove by hand. The compatibility of PVA varies across brands and formulations.

Contents:

Introduction 
  What is PVA?
  Requirements *

Printer Setup
  Compatibility *
  Spooling
  Loading & Unloading Filament *
  Bed Surface *
  Bed Leveling & Nozzle Height *
  Pre-heating 
  Enclosure
  Filament Storage *

Printer Settings
  Layer Height *
  Nozzle Temperature *
  Bed Temperature *
  Heated Chamber
  Cooling *
  Rafts / Brims
  Supports *
 
Additions *

Post Printing
  Removing a print after completion
  Dissolving *

Trouble Shooting
  Fragile Supports
  Blocked Nozzle / Filament Jam
  Burning / Discolouring
  Stringing / Blobs / Oozing
  Poor Interface Adhesion / Warping
  Poor Interface Quality / Undersides
  Slow Dissolve Time
  Wipe Wall / Prime Tower Collapsing
  Difficult to remove prints

Filament Links
  Purchase or learn about PVA Filaments
 

 


Introduction


What is PVA?

PVA (Polyvinyl alcohol) is a water-soluble plastic commonly used to 3D print disolvable support structures. Water soluble PVA supports enable the printing of more complex and delicate geometry with supports that can be safely removed without risk of breaking the part. Additionally PVA support structures can be printed to improve underside surface quality and prevent sagging which can occur on steep overhangs.

PVA filaments are compatible with a wide variety of materials depending on their chemical make up. Some PVA filaments are developed to interface with PLA while others may interface with more than one material type.

A common misunderstanding is that PVA filaments are a makeup of the same material used to manufacture PVA glue sticks. These two materials are in fact different and should not be confused. Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAC) is used to manufacture the glue sticks you can purchase at many supply stores, while Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA, PVOH or PVAl) are the filaments that we use to 3D print water-soluble support structures.

PolyDissolve™ S1 is a PVA filament specifically designed to interface with PLA, TPU, PVB and Nylon based filaments while maintaining good solubility in regular tap water.

PolyDissolve™ S1 can also act as a support structure for PETG depending on the part geometry.

Requirements *

A professional 3D printer with dual lifting nozzles or an IDEX system is highly recommended to print PVA with the best results. We recommend only printing with a quality PVA filament.

Minimum Extruder Temperature - 215°C (±10°C)  (Correct temperature will vary on your printer)
Heated Bed - N / A (Depends on primary modeling material)
Enclosure - Not required, Beneficial
Heated Chamber - N / A (Depends on primary modeling material)
Part Cooling Fan - N / A (Depends on primary modeling material)
Feeding / Spooling - Printing from a dry box like the PolyBox is recommended.
Other Notes - A 3D printer capable of multi-material printing (for example multiple nozzles) is required to 3D print soluble support structures. Single nozzle multi-material systems are not recommended due to the lack of temperature control.

Some 3D printing slicers (software) have a pre-configured PVA profile. The accuracy of this profile may vary depending on if you are using 1st or 3rd party filament, but we recommend duplicating this profile or creating a new profile to start with and making necessary adjustments covered in this article.

 


Printer Setup


Compatibility *

Support Material Modelling Material
PolyDissolve S1 (PVA) Supports the model very well - PLA based, PVB based, TPU based and Nylon based material from Polymaker’s portfolio
Generally supports the model depending on its geometry - PETG based material from Polymaker’s portfolio
Ultimaker PVA Ultimaker PLA, Tough PLA, CPE, and Nylon

Feeding path and spooling

PVA doesn't have any specific feeding path requirements.

PVA is a hygroscopic material, quickly absorbing moisture from the air and impacting print quality. To ensure your filament stays dry we recommend printing  PVA from a dry box. If you don't own a dry box you should unload PVA immediately after printing and store your spool in a resealable bag.

As a general tip we recommend avoiding long and complicated feeding paths that can cause bends in the filament, this can introduce drag on the filament that may result in difficulties feeding and extruding.

Loading and Unloading Filament *

PVA filament will absorb moisture if it is exposed to the air for extended periods of time and this moisture state makes the filament is quite soft and prone to jamming. If the filament has been sitting in the print head for an extended period; it is good practice to manually purge the filament before starting a new print or simply unload your PVA filament until you are ready to print again.

Changing from a PVA material
If the printer is currently loaded with PVA or a similar material, unload that material at 225°C and extrude your PVA filament at the same temperature. Stop extruding the PVA filament after the previous colour is completely purged.

Changing from a higher temperature material:
If the printer is currently loaded with a higher temperature material, unload that material at its recommended printing temperature, and then load and extrude your PVA filament at that same higher temperature. It is important to load the PVA at this higher temperature so the previous material can be pushed out.  Stop extruding the PVA filament after the previous material has been completely purged and cleaned out, lower the temperature to 225°C, and extrude the PVA plastic for a few more seconds.

Changing from a lower temperature material:
If the printer is currently loaded with a different lower temperature material, unload that material at its recommended printing temperature, and then load and extrude your PVA filament at 225°C. Stop extruding the PVA filament after the previous material has been completely purged and cleaned out. 

Bed Surface *

Printing with the right bed surface is very important when printing any filament. For PVA based filaments we suggest printing with the ideal surface of your modelling material, this may be on Glass with Magigoo, straight on Buildtak or another surface you find success with.

Bed Leveling & Nozzle Height *

It is important when printing PVA that your first layer adheres to the printing bed.

  • Your bed must be properly leveled.
  • The two nozzles must be calibrated and aligned in X and Y axis.
  • The nozzle height of each nozzle must be set correctly. (distance between the nozzle and bed)

The ideal gap between the nozzle and bed is typically a distance of 0.1mm, this is the thickness of two pieces of paper. When changing between bed surfaces it is important to adjust the nozzle height again to compensate for the added thickness of the bed surface.

Pre-Heating

When printing PVA, pre-heating the heated bed is likely not required but may vary depending on your choice of modeling material.

Enclosure

In most cases an enclosure is not required to print PVA however can be beneficial for some modeling materials. Enclosures are commonly used to maintain a consistent printing environment and protect the 3D print from drafts and external temperature changes. 

If your 3D printer is enclosed and you have the option to open the top of the 3D printer we recommend doing so in most cases. Keeping the lid open will help to prevent the PVA filament from softening too quickly, this is especially important in summer months.

Filament Storage *

When not in use PVA filaments should be stored away from sunlight and in a resealable bag with desiccant.

PVA is a very hygroscopic material that will quickly absorb moisture from its surrounding environment. PVA will absorb moisture faster than Nylon and other hygroscopic materials so we recommend keeping the product stored correctly when not in use and printing with a dry box to ensure the best printing quality throughout the spool.

Effects of Moisture:
When the filament passes through the hot end the moisture rapidly expands creating bubbles in between layers, poor layer adhesion, inconsistent extrusion due to material expansion and thus poor surface quality.

Preventing Moisture Absorption:
To eliminate all possibilities of moisture impacting your 3D prints, you must store and print your PVA filament in the optimum environment (below 15% humidity recommended) to prevent moisture absorption.

Some users will simply dry their filament before use however excessive drying will degrade the filament. We recommend storing all filaments in a resealable bag with desiccant when not in use and we recommend using a filament dry box like the PolyBox™ when printing. The PolyBox™ is a spool holder / dry box that stores filament in their optimal environment while printing.

Removing Moisture:
If your filament has absorbed moisture it can be dried in a convection oven. Visit our 'starters guide to moisture, drying and filament storage' for recommended drying times.


Printer Settings


Layer Height *

For adequate adhesion between the PVA and modelling material it is recommend to start with a layer height 50% of the nozzle diameter; this would be 0.2mm layer height when printing with a 0.4mm nozzle.

If the layer height is too large there is a chance that the PVA and modelling material may separate due to the weaker bond. In the example below we printed PA6-GF with PVA, when using a 0.4mm nozzle this combination succeeded with 0.2mm layer heights but failed once the layer height was increased to 0.24mm. In this example different flow settings or a larger nozzle diameter may be required to achieve the same adhesion with 0.24mm layers.



Left printed at 0.24mm layer height with a 0.4mm nozzle (failed) and right printed at 0.2mm layer height with a 0.4mm nozzle (succeeded).

Nozzle Temperature *

PVA filaments print at a low temperature, typically between 215˚C – 225˚C.

The optimal printing temperature of an PVA filament will vary depending on which printer you are using and more importantly will vary between filament brands. To find the optimal nozzle temperature we recommend starting with a temperature right in the middle of the manufacturer’s suggested settings. If the manufacturer recommends 215˚C – 225˚C, printing at 220°C is a good starting point. Based on the quality of the support structure we suggest adjusting ± 2°C at a time.

Troubleshooting Nozzle Temperature
If the nozzle temperature is too hot, you may experience wisps / stringing on the surface of the print, discolouration or a noticeable smell during printing.

If the nozzle temperature isn't hot enough, you may experience weak adhesion between the model and supports, under-extrusion (uneven / rough surface quality) and if the filament is not melting fast enough; nozzle blockages. 

Bed Temperature *

It is important to set your heated bed temperature for the modelling material. PVA can be printed without a heated bed, but if equipped a heated bed can be used up to 60°C. Success without a heated bed will depend on your printing surface, printing environment and model size.

It is important your heated bed isn’t set too high as this will result in poor printing quality .

Heated Chamber

Unless specifically advised by the filament manufacturer we don't recommend printing with chamber heating turned on.

Cooling *

When printing PVA in most cases is recommended to print with the part cooling fan ON. The cooling fan solidifies the plastic faster which will help improve printing quality of PVA and reduce stringing.

Printing with the cooling fan OFF may offer better results with some modelling materials like PETG or PolyMide™ PA6-CF.

Rafts / Brims

A brim is a thin layer of material surrounding the print that can be added help improve bed adhesion. The brim can be removed once the print has completed.

A raft is a foundation for the model to print on top of. The can be added to help improve bed adhesion and stabilize supports. The raft can be removed once the print has completed.

With some leveling systems manufacturers may specifically recommend a raft to compensate, in these cases the raft can either be printed in PVA or your modelling material.

If you are printing the raft in PVA, set the raft gap from model (z distance) to 0.00mm.

Supports *

PVA filament can be used to print all support structures or can be reserved to print only the dense interface between the model and support structure. For some geometries  printing only the interface layer in PVA can speed up the dissolving process.

Printing supports with a high density infil will create more stable structures whereas printing supports with a low density infil will use less material and dissolve faster.

When using soluble supports we recommend having no gap ( 0.00mm z distance) between the model and supports. To achieve the best surface quality we also recommend printing with between 2 - 4 dense interface layers. The dense support infil should be between 70 - 100%.

If supports are not sticking to the model, try increasing the printing temperature of each material in +5°C adjustments and check the calibration of your two nozzles.

If your supports are failing / collapsing during the print, try increasing support density and printing with a raft or brim, this will improve adhesion for the supports.

Additions *

When printing multiple materials the best results are achieved with high quality dual extruder 3D printers that feature dual lifting nozzles or IDEX systems. These technologies are designed to help prevent the idle nozzle from crashing into the model and to minimize contamination between the two materials.

To further reduce contamination, the following additions can be enabled in the slicer.

Extruder Cool Down / Initial Printing Temperature
Each slicer may refer to this setting by a different name but this setting will cool down the inactive extruder to prevent the nozzle from oozing and contaminating the print.

Prime Tower
The prime tower is an addition that can be printed next to the model to prevent under extrusion by priming the nozzle before printing the next layer. The idle nozzle can also wipe on the prime tower to remove any unwanted blobs from the nozzle so they don't attach to the part.

In most cases a prime tower will replace the need for a wipe wall. Common settings for the prime tower include control of the tower width and density.

Wipe Wall
The wipe wall is an addition that prints a shell around the model that can be easily peeled away after printing. When using a wipe wall the nozzle will be primed before the next layer to prevent under extrusion and the idle nozzle will wipe oozed material on the wall to prevent it from contaminating the model.

In most cases a wipe wall will replace the need for a prime tower. Common settings for the wipe wall include wipe wall print speed, distance from model and number of perimeters.


Post 3D Printing


Removing a print after completion

Once your 3D print has completed, it can be removed from the build plate. The best method to remove your PVA 3D prints will depend on your build platform and the modeling material you use.

Rigid Build Platform
On rigid build platforms like glass or aluminium, a sharp paint scraper can be used to easily remove the model.

When printing PVA on glass with materials like PETG, the model should be removed from the glass platform when the temperature is high. Removing a print after the bed has cooled may cause the glass to break because the print may shrink more rapidly than the glass plate.

As a solution we recommend applying a thin layer of Magigoo Original before printing. With Magigoo applied the PETG model can self release as the bed cools.

Some printers are designed so the platform can be removed from the bed while other printers the build platform may be fixed inside the printer. If the platform is fixed, we recommend supporting the platform with your second hand to prevent uneven pressure on the bed which could affect your bed leveling.

Flexible Build Platform
Some printers on the market print on flexible build plates. With these platforms users can flex the plate to remove prints.

Click here if you are having issues removing prints from the build platform.

Dissolving Supports *

Dissolving Method 1 - Submerge the 3D print in a bucket of regular tap water to dissolve the support structures.  The dissolving process can be speed up by agitating the water with a small water pump or by using warm water (>50˚C). Depending on the concentration and volume of PVA material and water, regularly changing the water may speed up the process.

Dissolving Method 2 - An even faster method is to first remove some of the support structures by hand. Submerging the 3D print and supports in water for 10 - 30 minutes will soften the PVA support structures into a gel like consistency. In this state the bulk of the PVA will be very easy to remove by hand and can be disposed in the trash. The rest of the support material can then be dissolved like in method 1.  The dissolving process can be further speed up by agitating the water with a small water pump or by using warm water (>50˚C). Depending on the concentration and volume of PVA material, regularly changing the water may speed up the process.

Disposal - The preferred method of disposal for polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) support material is in the trash. The immersion of 3D printed objects into water containing support material will generate wastewater containing PVA. It is suggested that you contact your local Sanitary Sewer (Wastewater) Authority to obtain the proper disposal method prior to discharging to the sewer.


Trouble Shooting


Fragile support structures

PVA should ideally print clean and stable support structures. Please consider these notes if your support structures are collapsing.

Improving supports.

  • We first suggest checking that your spool of PVA is dry. An easy way to test for moisture content in a spool of filament is to extrude the filament, if you hear a distinct popping sound your filament has likely absorbed moisture. As the filament is extruded, the moisture will expand and rupture in the filament creating a rough and inconsistent extrusion. Typically If you experience issues with moisture, printing with a dry box and applying preventative measures will be important to maintain the best printing results. 
  • If there is too much friction on the filament feeding path, the supports may be printing with underextrusion. To reduce resistance on the filament you can move the spool holder closer to the 3D printer and check the curve of the filament guide tube is not too tight.
  • If your extruder temperature or flow rate is too low during printing, the PVA filament won't extrude properly, leaving gaps within the model and creating fragile supports. Printing with the correct nozzle temperature will solve this issue.
  • If your nozzle is partially blocked the filament will have difficulty extruding. Click here for trouble shooting tips regarding blocked nozzles.
  • Printing with a raft or brim can create a more stable foundation for the support structures.
  • Reducing your travel and printing speed can help to minimize vibration, ensure consistent extrusion and improve printing quality.
  • If the two nozzles are incorrectly aligned, the idle nozzle may crash into the support structures and knock them over during the print. 3D printers with dual lifting nozzles or independant nozzles (IDEX) offer benefits to help prevent this issue.

If the supports are not adhering to the model please click here.

Blocked Nozzle / Filament Jam

When 3D Printing it is possible to encounter filament jams or nozzle blockages, these blockages can be caused due to a variety of reasons.

Causes and Steps to Prevent Nozzle Blockage and filament jams.
In all of these cases if the filament cannot pass through the extruder, the extruder gear will continue to try push the filament and will eventually 'chew out' the filament. If you hear a clicking or clunking sound coming from the extruder, this is a good sign that the filament is jammed or will be if ignored. 

  • PVA filament can absorb moisture and soften when left in the extruder for extended periods of time. Unloading the PVA after printing can help prevent this from occurring.
  • If your extruder temperature is too low during printing, the PVA filament will not flow and will have difficulty extruding. Printing with the correct nozzle temperature will solve this issue.
  • If the filament is softening in the hot end, the extruder will 'chew out' the filament, causing a nozzle jam. For PVA this is most commonly caused by moisture. Keeping the filament dry can help prevent this issue from occuring.
  • If there is too much friction on the filament, the extruder may have difficulties feeding the plastic. Try feeding the filament with a spool holder in different positions (above, beside, behind the printer).
  • As PVA is a relatively soft material, too much retraction or grip / tension from the extruder gear can easily cause filament to chew out and jam. Adjusting retraction behavior or the extruder gear tension can solve this issue.
  • If the nozzle height is set too close to the bed, the filament will have difficulty feeding through the nozzle eventually causing a filament jam. When printing at finer layer heights (0.1 and 0.05mm) the correct nozzle height is even more important. To prevent this issue it is important to print with the bed leveled and the correct nozzle height.
  • If the part is warping or lifting off the bed, the model will push the PVA supports against the nozzle, limiting extrusion and material flow, in this case it is important to prevent the part from warping.
  • If the printing speed is faster than the filament can reliably melt and extrude, a jam may occur. Decreasing the printing speed may help prevent this issue from occurring.
  • Nozzle Blockages can occur more commonly with finer nozzles. The majority of 3D Printers are equipped with 0.4mm nozzles, it is important when printing or experimenting with a smaller nozzle (0.2mm) to adjust printing speed and extrusion settings 
  • If the filament is of poor quality, is oval shaped or is manufactured with an inconsistent diameter, this can cause the filament to jam in the extruder. The industry standard for filament tolerance is ± 0.05 mm. If the filament is 1.75mm an acceptable diameter variance would be between 1.70 - 1.80mm. Premium and higher quality brands can offer ± 0.02 mm tolerance.

Cleaning a PVA Nozzle Blockage
If the nozzle is blocked with PVA one of the most successful solutions is to feed a modelling material like PLA, PETG or ABS through the extruder / hot end. With assistance and a high nozzle temperature you can generally purge and remove the clogged plastic.

If you cannot remove the blockage of PVA plastic from the nozzle, we recommend swapping to a spare nozzle.

'Burning' / Discolouring

If your PVA prints have discoloured marks on the surface, this may be cased by carbonization:

 Preventing carbonization.

  • 'Burn marks' on PVA supports are a common occurance if the filament has absorbed moisture.
  • Marks can also occur if PVA filament sticks to the nozzle and carbonizes. Eventually this blackened material will detach from the nozzle during printing, leaving a 'burn' mark. Printing with additions like a wipe wall or purge tower can help to prevent this from occurring.

Stringing / Blobs / Oozing

PVA based materials can flow when the modeling material is printing, leaving behind remnants and blobs. This can also occur when the modelling material sits idly in the nozzle.

To reduce contamination of the two materials it is recommended to first ensure that the modelling material (PLA, TPU etc.)  can be printed without oozing. Once the profile for the modeling material can be printed without oozing it will be easier to adjust settings to prevent oozing in the context of dual extrusion.

Minimizing and preventing stringing from the active nozzle.

  • Printing with a cooler nozzle temperature will in many cases help to reduce unwanted oozing as the plastic will flow and solidify at a different rate.
  • By increasing the retraction length or retraction speed in your slicer settings, the extruder will withdraw a short distance of filament from the nozzle, helping to prevent oozing when the extruder travels between points.
  • Increasing travel speed can reduce the 'idle' time of the nozzle and minimize the opportunity for stringing to occur.
  • Advanced slicer settings like coasting can be turned on to effectively reduce stringing.
  • If the spool has absorbed moisture, the moisture will affect the flow rate and viscosity of the material and cause unwanted stringing and wisps.

Minimizing and preventing oozing from the idle nozzle.

  • We recommend printing with additions to prevent contamination. Cooling down the idle extruder can help prevent contamination in combination with a prime tower or wipe wall.
  • The best results will be achieved with a dual extrusion system featuring lifting or independent nozzles. Preventing contamination is very difficult on printers with dual nozzles that are in a fixed position on the same carriage.
  • Position the wipe wall or prime tower closer to the model to reduce time travel time.

Poor Interface Adhesion / Warping

Causes and steps to improve poor interface adhesion.

  • Firstly check to ensure that there is no z gap between the model and supports and that the PVA material is compatible with your modelling material.
  • Decreasing the printing speed for both the part and supports can improve the interface adhesion.
  • To interface correctly it is important that the height of the two nozzles are correctly calibrated. We recommend first printing a dual extrusion model in two colours of the same PLA type and brand. If the two PLA colours do not adhere to each other perhaps the printing temperature is too low, fan speed is too high or the nozzles need calibrating.
  • Printing with some layer height / nozzle combinations may result in poor adhesion between the PVA and modelling material. We recommend starting with a layer height that is 50% of your nozzle size. With a 0.4mm nozzle this would be 0.2mm layer height.
  • If you are printing without a full enclosure consider enclosing your 3D printer to protect the print from drafts and temperature fluctuations.
  • If the filament is under-extruding during printing there will be inconsistencies and poor adhesion between the two materials. It is important to ensure you are printing each filament at the correct nozzle temperature to ensure consistent flow. We also suggest minimizing drag or tension which may prevent the filament from feeding.
  • Printing with the cooling fan ON can negatively impact inter-layer adhesion between PVA and some modelling materials. Printing with a LOW setting like 20% or OFF setting may improve adhesion between the two materials.
  • Poor layer adhesion can also be caused when printing with filaments that have been spoiled with moisture. When the filament passes through the hot end, the moisture erupts creating bubbles in the extruded plastic, compromising  the adhesion. If a spool of filament has absorbed moisture, it can be dried however it is important to store the filaments correctly to prevent this issue from occurring.

Poor Interface Quality / Undersides

Causes and steps to improve poor interface quality.

  • Printing no gap between the model and support with four layers of dense support (90 - 100% infil) can significantly minimize sagging and improve the underside surface quality.
  • Printing with a finer layer height can improve the resolution of your print on both top and bottom surfaces.
  • Increasing the support overhang angle and adjusting the pillar size of the support structures will change how the supports are generating, improving connection between the model and supports.
  • Printing with a slower printing speed for both the model and supports can improve surface quality.
  • You may find different extrusion temperatures and printing with the cooling fan ON or OFF will change how each material flows.

Slow Dissolve Time

The dissolving process can speed up by agitating the water with a small water pump or by using warm water (>50˚C). Depending on the concentration and volume of PVA material, regularly changing the water can also speed up the process.

Wipe Wall / Prime Tower Collapsing

Preventing wipe wall from collapsing.

  • First try increasing the perimeter thickness of the wipe wall. Printing the wipe wall with 3 perimeters will be more stable than printing with a single perimeter.
  • The X / Y distance between the wipe wall and model can be adjusted. Printing with the wipe wall closer to the model may improve stability of the wall.
  • Print with a raft or brim to improve adhesion to the print bed and check that you are using the correct printing surface and bed temperature.
  • Decrease the wipe wall printing speed and travel speed to avoid the extruder from knocking over the prime tower.

Preventing prime tower from collapsing.

  • First try increasing the prime tower density and thickness to improve stability and adhesion with the bed. Tall models will require a thicker prime tower than shorter models.
  • Position the prime tower closer to the model to reduce travel movements.
  • Print with a raft or brim to improve adhesion to the print bed and check that you are using the correct printing surface and bed temperature.
  • Decrease the printing speed and travel speed to avoid the extruder from knocking over the wipe wall.

Parts difficult to remove from platform

To print a successful print excellent adhesion between your first layer and the the bed is critical, but in some cases it can be difficult to remove models if your adhesion is too good.

Causes and steps to improve print removal experience

  • Some users prefer to apply Magigoo to their print bed. With Magigoo parts can self release when the bed cools down, making print removal easy.
  • Your heated bed may be operating too hot or your nozzle temperature may be too close to the bed. You can try making slight adjustments to the heated bed temperature or nozzle height if this improves your user experience. Of course this is a fine balance as adhesion between the print and platform is important to achieve successful prints.

Filament Links


PolyDissolve™ S1 Introduction
Buy PolyDissolve™ S1

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